Your Guide to Evening Primrose Oil:
- What Does it Do?
- Health Benefits
- Weight Management
- How to Take Evening Primrose Oil
- Side Effects
Evening primrose oil seems to be a superb supplement. It’s extracted as oil from the seeds of the herbaceous evening primrose plant, Oenothera biennis L., Onagraceae. The use of evening primrose oil as a dietary supplement is broad across the general population for a variety of proposed benefits. These include: treatment of joint conditions (such as rheumatoid arthritis), eczema and psoriasis, and weight loss(1).
However, the list doesn’t stop there. People use evening primrose oil for a host of other conditions, such as multiple sclerosis(2), osteoporosis(3), Raynauds syndrome(4), cardiovascular disease/ hypertension(5-6); and even cancer(7). However, it’s generally considered that the predominance of research is preliminary in nature and needs to be further substantiated(8-9).
What Does Evening Primrose Oil Do?
The ingredient which makes Evening Primrose Oil a great choice as a supplement is its high content of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), specifically gamma-linoleic acid(10).
Interestingly, evening primrose oil has a 74% content of linoleic acid and only 9% gamma-linoleic acid (GLA), however, the latter is considered the key active ingredient in the oil(11). The oil has one of the highest concentrations of this substance whereas most herbs and plants don’t contain any.
GLA is an example of an omega-6 fatty polyunsaturated fatty acid and shares a similar structure to omega-3 fatty acids. Omega-6 and omega-3 fatty acids are well known for being highly present in fish oils and include the compounds eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). Research has found that the health benefits of such oils are likely to be expansive, including reduction of cardiovascular disease risk factors, anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant effects, reduction of depression, and disease modification in arthritis(12), which makes evening primrose oil a great addiotion to any healthy lifestyle.
Benefits of Evening Primrose Oil
Evening primrose oil is used to help manage a plethora of different diseases and ailments. We’ve compiled the research into evening primrose oil and whittled it down to some specific areas where the evidence is either the most abundant or most intriguing.
1. Joint Health
It has been shown that GLA-rich oils may provide an effect which reduces not only inflammatory processes, but also reduces antioxidant activity and reduces the growth of new blood vessels(13-14).
The activity of reactive oxygen species (free radicals) has been considered one of the provocative factors for autoimmune diseases such as RA. Consumption of evening primrose oil has been shown to reduce inflammation and oxidative stress from free radicals by increasing the amount and effectiveness of antioxidant enzymes, to the extent that disease activity in RA is reduced(14-15).
This would subsequently result in reduced symptoms (such as pain and stiffness) and lead to better mobility and function in those suffering from RA.
2. Eczema and Psoriasis
Evening primrose oil has long been used for the treatment of atopic eczema (also called atopic dermatitis) and psoriasis. This led to the large research group, the Cochrane Library, performing a large literature review to examine the effects of evening primrose oil on this condition(16).
Despite widespread use of this supplement for skin conditions such as these, the study actually found that evening primrose oil showed minimal to no effect on the significant reduction of the condition.
However, a more recent pilot study from 2014 contradicts the results of the Cochrane review and shows benefits on disease activity in atopic eczema(17). In fact, they found that the reduction in the intensity of the skin symptoms reduced correlated with the individual increase in GLA levels seen in the participants.
The results of this study suggest that the 320 mg and 160 mg groups may be equally effective in treating atopic dermatitis patients and show dose-dependent effects on serum fatty acid levels and EASI scores. This contradictory evidence to the Cochrane results perhaps indicates that the use of evening primrose oil is not generically useful, but perhaps that some people are more likely to benefit than others.
3. Weight Loss
The holy grail of supplements is a supplement that aids weight loss. Anything we can consume which may assist in the loss of body fat is often found to be a popular product. However, despite people often singing the praises of evening primrose oil for this task, the benefits are not as clear and consistent as you may expect.
For example, a double-blind study on 100 significantly overweight women examined the benefit of evening primrose oil supplementation over 12-weeks and compared to a placebo supplement(19). This study showed no difference between groups, meaning evening primrose oil was only as effective as a placebo tablet. However, this trial was flawed methodologically by a 25% drop out rate, which would substantially impact the reliability of the results. The subject pool also consisted of a group of women who had failed to respond previously to other forms of treatment, leading them to be considered to have “refractory obesity”. Simply put, this is a form of obesity which is considered to be resistant to treatment(20).
Considering the contradictory results from these studies, it’s clear that more research is necessary to determine whether evening primrose oil is really useful for weight loss.
A final area where evening primrose oil is often used as a therapy is in the treatment of headaches, specifically migraines.
Previously, a different ingredient of evening primrose oil (phenylalanine) has been considered the most important factor in its proposed effects on migraines. However, more recently a study on 129 participants over a 6 month period examined the benefits of polyunsaturated fatty acid consumption(22).
✓ Of the 129 participants evaluated, 86% experienced a reduction in both headache frequency and length of the attack.
✓ 22% of those studied actually became free of migraines altogether. A group of 14% only, showed minimal or no improvement to the therapy.
How to Take Evening Primrose Oil | Dosages
The literature describes variable dosages for each condition.
✓ 1-4 capsules (360mg linoleic acid/ 40-45mg GLA) twice per day for 12 weeks(23) OR
✓ 4-12 capsules (500mg evening primrose oil per capsule) in two daily divided dosages for up to 5 months(23) OR
✓ Topical application of 20% evening primrose oil cream, twice daily for up to 4 months(23) OR
✓ Normally 200-400mg of GLA or 2-4g of evening primrose oil daily.
✓ 540mg-600mg of evening primrose oil/ 20-30ml of evening primrose oil taken orally daily for 3-12 months(23)
✓ As high as 2000-3000mg have been attempted clinically.
✓ Normally 3-5g of evening primrose oil daily
Evening Primrose Oil | Side Effects & Safety
Evening primrose oil should always be consumed with food.
Special considerations should be made when taking evening primrose oil in the presence of the following conditions:
Previous knowledge from two papers in the 1980s suggested a risk of taking evening primrose oil when epileptic as it was thought to increase the rate of seizures, however, this has been disproven and it is suggested that formularies remove epilepsy as a precaution for evening primrose oil (24).
Bleeding disorders/Post surgical
Studies suggest an anti-coagulant effect of evening primrose oil consumption which puts consumers at risk of increased bleeding during surgery or in the presence of disease such as haemophilia(25).
The use of evening primrose oil during pregnancy is not supported in the literature and should be avoided(26).
Take Home Message
The truth about evening primrose oil as a supplement is that its high GLA content means it does have benefits as an anti-inflammatory and an anti-oxidant, which can help in the management of joint and skin issues. These effects explain the likely proposed benefits in other health areas. However, the evidence base remains lacking for the use of this aid for all people.
It seems that some people benefit more than others (perhaps due to genetic variability), and the only way you will know if evening primrose oil is the tool for you is to try it and see. It may indeed be the super supplement you’ve heard about.